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 Bague avec Commode ??

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Messages : 1092
Date d'inscription : 06/10/2010
Age : 31
Localisation : Strasbourg

MessageSujet: Bague avec Commode ??    Ven 1 Juil - 22:37

J'ai lu un peu en diagonale le ( long ) texte en anglais, je ne suis pas sûre d'avoir bien saisi mais il semblerait que l'auteur pense reconnaître Commode sur cette représentation de combat ?

This is a legionary ring of Legion's X Fretensis and VI Ferrata
(among other things these are identified by engravings on the bottom of
the ring's band) during the reign of Publius Helvius Pertinax (Dec 31st,
192 AD to March 28th 193 AD)*, or later in 193 AD (the "Year Of The
Five Emperors"). The ring is made of a silver lead alloy with electrum
electroplating and minute amounts of tinted metal. There are areas that
have ancient miniature art that will transform, there are also three
areas that show manual animation that is the most superb that I have
seen to date. Whoever commissioned or made this ring knew a great deal
about Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus's (161 to 192 AD, aka Commodus
the "Gladiator Emperor) actual mythos and the details of his death. The
miniature art on this ring shows that Rome's most famous gladiator event
was in fact a private affair, as the gladiatorial depiction on this
ring shows that it took place at the imperial palace in Rome and ended
with the assassination of Commodus. It also suggests that this may have
been meant to take place (but obviously with a different outcome) in the
arena of the Colosseum on Jan. 1st, 193. According to the "Augusta
Historica" (either of the late 3rd or early fourth century), on Dec.
31st Commodus's favorite concubine Marcia had discovered that she was
suspected of involvement in a conspiracy and that she was on Commodus's
execution list for the following day (those on the list also included
the new Consuls), although it is more likely that she had known of the
list for a week or more. Continuing with the story, she then sought the
assistance of the Praetorian Prefect Laetus and a chamberlain named
Electus who was her lover**, they immediately orchestrated and
implemented Commodus's end by poisoning, when this did not work they had
an athlete named Narcissus strangle him in his bath. Commodus had
planned to have those on the list executed on New Year's day, he also
had planned to enter the arena as a gladiator with a gladiator
entourage. If this is the actual story then the gladiatorial combat
depicted on this ring may suggest that it was rumored that Commodus had
planned to fight Marcia (who would be portrayed as an Amazon) and then
execute her in the Colosseum Arena. Such a display may have been thought
of as a represention of the legend / myth of Hercules's victory over
Hippolyte, the Amazon Queen (in one version Hercules mistakenly thought
that Hippolyte had betrayed him, he then killed her and took her ruler's
girdle of Aries), and a lesson to the treasonous. This may seem
ridiculous to those of reason, but Commodus was insane and he actually
thought that he was a reincarnation of Hercules. Commodus had treated
Marcia as a type of concubine queen (although from 182 or 187 AD he was
married to Bruttia Crispina, who was accused of treason and exiled, then
executed). On occasion he had Marcia dress as an Amazon and renamed the
month of September after her as "Amazonius".

The ring's bezel shows what may be a combination of Pertinax and
Marcia, or just Marcia as a Retarius gladiator and Commodus as a Sector
gladiator with a lion skin. Commodus preferred to be a Sector and his
later matches were in fact with Retarius gladiators, the lion skin is a
symbol of Hercules. The semi-nude Retarius with a fishing trident and
net may have been seen as symbolic of the Christian God as the
"Fisherman". On the head of the Returius are the letters "P A R" , under
the "P" is the letter "M". In front of this "M" there are the much
smaller letters of "CI" that combined with the "A R" in the word "P A R"
will spell "MARCI. Another view of these letters will show a distinct
"A M" which may be for "AMAZONIA MARCI ". The "P A R" with the "M"
should be for "PARTHICA" "MAXIMUS"; this was a title won by Lucius Verus
the co-emperor (who campaigned in the east) with Marcus Aurelius,
although Aurelius was also given this title it was Verus who had been
earned it. However when the ring is slightly moved the "P" will then
display an "E" in front of it, with the large "R" this is no doubt for
"PERTINAX". It suggests that Pertinax had been on campaign against the
Parthians with Verus, this would have been when he was an Auxiliary
Centurion commanding the "Cohors VII Gallorum Equitata" (the VII Cohort
of Mounted and Infantry Gauls). It should be mentioned that although it
is recorded that Pertinax had commanded that auxiliary cohort in Syria,
his participation in the Parthian campaign is a speculation. Upside down
there is a face that is drinking from a cup, the cup is also a
legionary cup (a cup with a handle), when moved the handle on this will
show a figure as if rising up, it is a theme of resurrection, this is
the first example of manual animation. An inscription of "L F X"
identifies this as being specifically associated with the X Fretensis.
It is thought that Marcia was influential in Commodus not issuing edicts
against the Christians and providing some Christians with imperial
appointments. Although the ancient writers do not mention her as a
Christian, in my opinion the depiction and inscriptions seen on this
ring shows that she was in fact a Christian. It also suggests that
Pertinax may have had a sympathy or even an empathy with the Christians.
Either way it is evident that Pertinax was viewed as a "Great Hope" for
the Christians, as well as the rest of Rome. Among the principle
conspirators there may have been agreement beforehand that Marcia was to
be the front and Latius the tool for the death of Commodus, but in fact
it was Pertinax that had initiated that event. On the Sector's chin
there are the letters "COMMA"; the "A" can also be transformed into a
"D", naturally this is for the name "Commodus".

The Marcia Retarius Gladiator: The art and inscriptions relating to
this theme will show that in the late 2nd C AD, the Legion X Fretensis
had Christians in their ranks, and that the heritage of this legion was
viewed as having a connection to the Christian belief of the passion and
the resurrection. There is a hint that Pertinax's Cohors VII Gallorum
Equitata may have been attached to this legion. When seen upside down
the images will show how the executions of the twelve Scillitan Martyrs
(symbolically shown as three heads, one female and two male, there is a
sword overhead) and the Roman Senator and Christian Apollonius (seen as a
head in a Roman Attic Helmet with the letter "A") had instilled a
resentment in Marcia and her fellow Christians, other images make it is
evident that they are connected to the passion and crucifixion of
Christ. The spear shaft (note that there is no spearhead) is of the
Praetorian Prefect Quintus Aemilius Laetus. On this it shows that the
athlete Narcissus who strangled Commodus was a Dacian, and that he had
used Marcia's Mamillare (a breast wrap), and perhaps her strophium
(underwear, but in this instance it is more like a thong) to strangle
Commodus. The servant Eclectus is also represented.

The Commodus Sector Gladiator: The art and inscriptions relating to
this will show Commodus as the Emperor Nero, with a rope like garment
round his neck (this has the second example of manual animation). It
will also suggest that in the late 2nd C AD, the Legion VI Ferrata had
at least some Christians in their ranks, and that the heritage of this
legion was viewed as having a connection to the Christian belief of the
birth of Christ, although there may be more to this. There is a hint
that Pertinax's Cohors VII Gallorum Equitata may have also been attached
to this legion. As mentioned above, it will also shows that Commodus
was seen as the reincarnation of the Emperor Nero. The shield is a
scroll (that through clever manual animation will roll open and close
(this is the third example of manual animation), it shows that the Nero
association is directly attributed to his father Marcus Aurelius (who
was the greatest persecutor of Christians since Nero). Among other
things, the scroll shows a woman with a cup in front of what appears to
be Commodus. This should be Marcia poisoning Commodus, that is prior to
his death at the hands of Narcissus. When placed upside down it will
show that a child was born in the Middle East who was either Christ or
"the" Antichrist. There is a scene in a cave much like the nativity,
this is within a large letter "M". There is a male figure in a golden
fez hat (it is like a pill box hat) and garment holding up a child in a
fez hat with a tassel, on the male figure's fez hat are the letters "L
N" in black and then the letter "B" in gold. The fez is thought to have
been first worn by the ancient Greeks, but particularly the Eastern
Greeks, the Fez hat may symbolize Syria or Palestine. Next to the
child's head is a comet. This may be the Christ child or the child may
be the "Beliar" of the "Martyrdom and Ascension of Isaiah" (one of the
apocalyptic pseudepigraphas). If of the Christ child then the
abbreviated inscription would read as the "Lampetia" (shining),
"Nazarene", and "Bethlehem. If not then it may be a reference to a
sacred child legend / myth of the Nabateans. If of the Beliar then the
abbreviated inscription would read as "Lampetia" (shining), "Nero", and
"Beliar". Either Legion VI Ferrata Legion or IV Scythica may" have been
seen as having a connection to the birth of Christ or a Nerodian
Antichrist. When the ring is seen from the side and then turned
downward, the golden scroll will roll up, at the same time the silver
Commodus-Nero face will turn and then disappear. The message is very
clear as it says, so ends Rome's chapter of Commodus-Nero's 12 years of
his "Golden Age" (at some point Commodus had proclaimed his reign as a
"Golden Age"), more with this is that it is also a grave that will close
or open. The theme with the art on the inside is of the resurrection of
Lazarus, the Pentecost, and a hint of the resurrection of Osirus. There
are some Roman letters, a type of script, and symbols; there is one
line of very bright letters and symbols that are seen just as the scroll
or grave is closed or opened, it suggests that it is a prayer of
resurrection. What is of particular interest is that the Coptic
Christians connect St. Mark to the Pentecost for they believe that St.
Mark hosted the Apostles during the Pentecost . When this factor is
combined with the mode of death of Commodus, then it may suggest that
his final death by strangulation had been planned for it's symbolism and
that it was just an opportune occurrence, as St. Mark had also died by
strangulation (he was dragged and strangled). As Nero is on the scroll
when as a shield, then I have little doubt that the Christian sect
propaganda seen here also represents Commodus's death as the
resurrection of Christianity from the era of Nero. I have seen Roman
propaganda with miniature art on many artifacts and resurrection appears
to have been a cult theme from the time of Vespasian onward, but it is
nothing when compared to the primary resurrection beliefs of the
Christian sects, apparently many Gladiators were attracted to those
cults and to Christianity. The Retiarius vs Secutor match may have had
special meaning to the early Christians, perhaps due to it's fisherman /
Vulcan symbolism as a combat of water and fire.
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